The Artistic Way of Programming

12 years back, when I started my formal classes in computer science, the first thing I learnt was “data” means “information”. A few days after that, we started conventional programming, where code and data were treated separately. For example, only data can be passed as the functional arguments. It was difficult for me to digest that “code, which is also information, is not treated as data”. I strongly felt that this will increase complexity of softwares in the long run.

A system does three things – read, transform (processing data), write. In other words – the mathematics (the transform part), and the effect of that in real life (the read/write part). The data transformation is indeed a mathematical concept, and with the help of read and write we make the mathematics (the transform part) useful to the real world. Bringing the “transform” part fully inside mathematical domain has its own benefit of using mathematics without fear (possible errors) for the analysis of the system, making the system more tractable mathematically. The catch is to treat both the elements of transformations, data and functions, equally.

Initially, code used to be bigger than the data, so sending data over the wire was feasible. But with time, data becoming huge, sending code to systems over the wire becomes the need, resting the data on the systems intact. With big data, the need of the hour is to treat the code as data, so that the code can be taken as argument to another meta function on a system having huge data which expects an algorithm for transformations.

Roughly speaking, codes are algorithms, algorithms are mathematical functions, functions are in turn actually look-up tables, i.e. data. Hence with this principle, all codes or functions are data.This is exactly the cornerstone of the functional paradigm. The functional programming is programming with functions, they treat functions and data likewise. Another principle I love, to control complexity, rules should not be complex itself.

Thumb rules rewritten for the functional paradigm:

Read-write and transformations(algorithms) should be separate.
Use immutable variables. Discourage use of reassignment statements.
Discourage side-effects (input/output or changing any variable in-place), every function should ONLY return its expected result.
Use referentially transparent functions (sometimes it is called pure functions) with no side effects, i.e. if x = y, f(x) and f(y) should be same forever.
Unit testing is a must for each function.
One of the main design patterns should be followed is to use expressions instead of instructions, i.e. it should be declarative in nature. Discourage use of loops like for/while – use recursive statements as shown above to calculate sum. Tell computers what needs to be done, not how to do it – it reduces error, especially edge cases.
With the need to control the complexity of the system and the advance design, the design pattern for the functional composition can be made to follow some basic algebraic structures, which in turn becomes more robust.

Cleveland Has A Better Chance Than Chicago To Return To The World Series

The youth of the Cubs, epitomized by the selection of Kris Bryant as the National League Most Valuable Player, has many people discussing a return to the World Series next year and beyond for the team from Chicago’s North Side. In actuality, it seems that their opponents in this past Fall Classic are more likely than the Cubs to reach it again in 2017.

Several key members of the Cubs are facing free agency, most notably closer Aroldis Chapman and leadoff hitter Dexter Fowler. Postseason pitching hero Jon Lester will return, but veteran battery mate David Ross has retired. The loss of his personal long time catcher, who was brought over from Boston to Chicago primarily at Lester’s request, may cause the left hander to be less effective in 2017.

Cleveland, on the other hand, will be adding a star player to a lineup that managed to somehow win the pennant without him. Outfielder Michael Brantley, the team’s M.V.P. in 2015, will return after missing nearly all of last season due to injury. They will also get back catcher Yan Gomes, who missed much of the season as well. The path to the playoffs promises to be easier for Cleveland next season. Two of the perennial powers that rival the Indians in the American League Central division, Detroit and Chicago, are going to be considerably weaker as they enter rebuilding mode. The Tigers are looking to trade veterans such as Julio Iglesias and Ian Kinsler in hopes of getting top prospects, and the White Sox are marketing ace left hander Chris Sale and center fielder Adam Eaton.

Also weaker are the teams the Indians breezed through in the playoffs, which saw Cleveland win seven of the eight games in the two rounds. Boston, who was swept in three games by Cleveland, will very likely miss the presence of “Big Papi” David Ortiz. The perennial All-star and likely Hall of Fame designated hitter retired after the season.

Toronto, who was dispatched by Cleveland in five games in the Championship Series, will be losing at least one of its key sluggers Edwin Encarnacion and Jose Bautista. Both All-Stars are free agents this winter, and each will command contracts so large that it would be impossible for the Blue Jays to sign the duo.

On the other hand, the Cubs’ most probable playoff opponents are likely going to be stronger. Washington, which finished behind Chicago for most victories last season, is seeking to acquire Sale from the White Sox. That acquisition would strengthen an already formidable starting rotation, anchored by Cy Young Award winner Max Scherzer. The Nationals are also on target to sign Fowler away from Chicago. The Dodgers, who came just two games from wresting the pennant from the Cubs, are actively pursuing several power hitters that could push them over Chicago in the playoffs. Milwaukee outfielder and former National League M.V.P Ryan Braun continues to be linked in possible trades with Los Angeles.

While there is no doubt that the Cubs will be the favorites to win the pennant again in 2017, Cleveland might be an even better bet to repeat. After all, they won it last year without two of its best players, both of whom should be healthy in the spring.

Private Jet Detailing And Aircraft Cleaning Entrepreneurs Have Good News

The general aviation sector has been in the doldrums for quite a while. Some blame this on increased FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) regulations, much of which occurred after 9-11 to protect airports from potential terrorists, unfortunately these increased security requirements and increased regulations have stifled the general aviation (GA) sector. The economic crashes of 2000 and 2008 didn’t help, although in 2003 the economy was flying high thanks to Bush Tax Cuts and stimulus, then it hit a wall again and didn’t really do well until the run-up just before the 2008 crash.

The GA sector has only slightly recovered since then but not back to its 2003 highs. When Obama got elected he railed against Corporate Jets and Corporate Fat Cats which hurt jet sales and new aircraft sales. Remember when congress went after the Auto Makers for flying their corporate jets to Washington DC to beg for bailouts? Public sentiment against GA was at an all-time low. All of this had hurt aircraft cleaners and jet detailers – it made it tough to make money, but it looks like things are changing and the number of GA Aircraft is increasing. This new Trump Administration is pro-Aviation unlike the Obama Administration. Cutting corporate taxes will also help GA and jet sales. It looks like clear skies ahead for those in the General Aviation services business.

There was a great article in AIN – Aircraft International News – December Edition titled; “UBS Bizjet Index Sees Post-election Surge,” by Chad Trautvetter posted on December 12, 2016 which noted the following facts; The new Trump Administration in the U.S. is widely seen as a positive, with 61 percent of those surveyed expecting the outcome of the U.S. presidential election to ultimately be positive for the business jet market, while 11 percent don’t see a positive impact and 28 percent are uncertain. In fact the article went on to note that there was an increase of between 44-49% increased orders for private jets over last year. Many of those aircraft will be delivered by 2018, and the backlog will increase used aircraft sales and current new inventory. More aircraft certainly means more aircraft to clean and more new aircraft means more corporate detailing customers as well. Meanwhile, along with the fractional jet market, we see jet air-taxi services on the increase as well as Uber style aircraft ride-sharing plans smaller companies can buy into. All of this means the GA sector is ready to take off again and that’s good for business.

Mercedes Benz GLS : Premier Luxury SUV

American buyers can book their Mercedes-Benz GLS 2017 in December as deliveries initiate from March 2016. As of yet, no information is released regarding Australian and UK markets. Furthermore, fuel efficiency, pricing and performance are still undetermined.

Mercedes-Benz GLS 2017 is in essence a revamped GL-Class model. As per the GL strategy, all Mercedes’s vehicles including crossovers and SUVs initiate with GL-, followed by a letter, denoting the vehicle’s size. S-class includes the largest vehicles in category.

Apart from that, little is revised in GLS model, with trimmed down headlights and bumpers resembling its smaller models and LED lights are normative in Mercedes vehicles. Owners of Mercedes GLS-550 can opt for sports version for an aggressive edge.

Fast Facts

· Price: $64, 500

· Horsepower: 240-550

· Engine: 3.0 V6

Horsepower categorization Mercedes-Benz is all geared up with their engines slated to be incorporated into Mercedes-Benz GLS.

· GLS-350 BlueTEC is powered by V-6 diesel engine with turbo-boost, capable of producing 455 lbs-ft of torque and 240 horsepower.

· GLS-450 is equipped with V-6 turbo-engine, capable of producing 369 lb-ft of torque and 360 horsepower.

· GLS-550 is equipped with V-6 turbo engine, capable of producing 516 lb-ft of torque and 429 horsepower.

· The GLS-63 consists of factory-fitted V-8 turbo engine, producing 560 lb-ft of torque and 550 horsepower.

Engine categorization

The GLS model consists of the following categories:

· The GLS-350d is equipped with a 3-liter 6-cylinder engine.

· The GLS-450 is powered a by gasoline 3-litre 6-cylinder engine

· GLS-550 is equipped with 4.7 liter turbocharged 8-cylinder engine.

Miscellaneous options consist of adaptive damping options along with selectable modes, air suspension and driving modes for personal preferences.

Mercedes-Benz GLS 2017 can be facilitated with Distronic Plus, Mercedes’s own semi-autonomous cruise control system. It will operate at a predetermined speed before the driver takes control of the vehicle.

Interior

Mercedes-Benz has included subtle changes in its GL-class, updating various features from the 2013 version. The SUV class is now termed as GLS, depending upon the model of Mercedes in question. Mercedes-Benz GLS has an updated infotainment system, using trim materials and redesigned dashboard.

Mercedes GL class has been revamped for 21st century stylistic aesthetics. The infotainment screen has been redesigned into a floating tablet appearance, redefining Mercedes-Benz interiors. Furthermore, center console, instrumental panel and 3-spoke steering wheel have been redesigned. GLS models are normative with 3-rows of seats. In tech section, GLS model is remodeled with ample options. Normative tech utilities include myriad of safety systems, such as collision warning, automatic braking system and attention assistance for preventing drowsiness during driving. In case of an emergency braking, the vehicle will apply extra pressure.

Added tech galore

At an extended price, the GLS model can be bumped with impressive tech options. For an extra price, blind spot monitoring, cross-traffic detection and active lane-keep assist can be incorporated. With Active Curve System, the body rolling during taking sharp corners is reduced. Magic Vision Control facilitates spray free cleaning of windshield.

Pros

· Optimum for long-drive

· Attention-grabbing interior

· Comfortable seating

Cons

· Large size is a hindrance in driving

· Added tech can be expensive

· Driving cost is high